Impulse: Sanremo 2024

Sanremo 2024, the renowned Italian music festival, once again captivated audiences with its blend of glitz, glamour, and musical talent. Held in the picturesque coastal town of Sanremo, Italy, this annual event has become a symbol of Italian culture and entertainment, drawing both national and international attention.The 2024 edition of the festival showcased a diverse array of musical genres and styles, reflecting the rich tapestry of Italian music. From pop to rock, from folk to hip-hop, Sanremo 2024 celebrated the country’s vibrant music scene while also introducing new sounds and emerging artists to the spotlight.

As always, the festival featured a mix of established stars and up-and-coming talents, with performances that ranged from intimate acoustic sets to elaborate stage productions. Artists vied for the prestigious title of Sanremo winner, knowing that success at the festival could launch their careers to new heights.Beyond the music, Sanremo 2024 was also a showcase for Italian fashion, with celebrities and attendees dazzling on the red carpet in designer couture. The event served as a platform for Italian designers to showcase their latest creations, further cementing Sanremo’s reputation as a cultural touchstone.

But Sanremo is more than just a music festival; it’s a celebration of Italian identity and unity. Throughout its history, the festival has brought people together, transcending regional differences and fostering a sense of national pride. In a world where cultural events often come and go, Sanremo endures as a testament to the enduring power of music and the arts. As the final notes faded and the confetti fell, Sanremo 2024 left an indelible mark on both its participants and audiences, ensuring that its legacy will continue for years to come.

Surround Sound and Spatialisation Techniques

During this semester, I had the opportunity to delve into various ambisonics recording and mixing techniques, which significantly influenced my choice of project for the seminar’s culmination. As I evaluated the array of options presented during the course, I ultimately decided to employ a microphone system optimized for surround recording, coupled with subsequent processing using ambisonics mixing and rendering methods. My initial challenge revolved around selecting the appropriate recording material. Given my interest in capturing natural sounds, I embarked on a quest to find a location distant enough from anthropogenic noises, ensuring I could work with the full spectrum of sound without resorting to equalizers or extensive audio editing. After conducting a thorough survey of the Graz area, I settled on Plabutch as my recording site.

While traversing the hiking trails, I came across a secluded valley that provided an acoustic haven, sheltered from the bustling sounds of traffic and human activity a hidden slice of nature nestled amidst the trees and shrubbery. In Figure 1, you can observe the precise location of the microphone array during the final recording session.

While I successfully located a remote enclave devoid of machinery and modern technology, I, unfortunately, fell prey to the incessant interruption of air traffic, occurring at regular 20-minute intervals. An intriguing facet of this experience didn’t just stem from the realization that it’s increasingly challenging to discover a place devoid of human presence, but also from the contemplation of biodiversity and its daily rhythms. Despite recording for several hours, the acoustic material exhibited minimal timbral variation. With the exception of sporadic migratory bird calls that punctuated the recording, the captured soundscape displayed limited acoustic elements evolving over time. It would be worthwhile to revisit this site at different times of the day, allowing for an analysis of how the fauna changes as hours elapse. As depicted in Fig. 1, I strategically positioned the microphone array directly beneath a nest to inject dynamics into the otherwise constant texture, which was predominantly characterized by the sounds of wind and various types of insects.

On the technical front, I employed an array comprising eight microphones, featuring six cardioid microphones positioned on the horizontal plane and two hypercardioid microphones on the vertical plane:  

  • 6 * Neumann 148;
  • 2 * Neumann 150

In Figure 2, you can observe the graphical representation of the microphone array configuration and its spatial arrangement. The red dots denote the microphones positioned at 90-degree intervals on the horizontal plane, with each microphone situated 60° units apart. Meanwhile, the green triangles symbolize the supercardioid microphones oriented vertically towards the sky.

To facilitate outdoor recording, I employed a portable sound card, namely the Sound Devices MixPre 10. However, I encountered certain challenges during setup. Firstly, there was a lack of suitable anti-pop filters for outdoor recording. Secondly, I faced the issue of capturing a stereo sum of the microphones. Due to insufficient low-frequency filtering, I struggled to achieve the proper gain for an extended dynamic range. Additionally, distinguishing between individual microphones for front-end recording posed difficulties. For my next project, I intend to allocate several days for recording, enabling me to compare different settings on the computer for optimal results.

When it came to processing the tracks for ambisonics playback, I opted for Reaper as my digital audio workstation (DAW) due to its versatility and ease of configuring multichannel projects. Initially, I created a master track for binaural headphone playback and subsequently established eight mono tracks for the corresponding microphones. To recreate an authentic sound scene, I used StereoEncoders (Fig. 3) to position the sources of the respective tracks according to their original recording positions. The order I used is the 5th one, even though thanks to different listening tests made during the semester, a third one would have been more than enough.

After panning the various microphones, I employed a MultiEQ to remove unwanted frequencies. For the horizontal plane, I applied a 60Hz low-cut filter to all tracks, and for the two pointing upward, I used a 250Hz filter to enhance spatial localization by cleaning the low register. As I mixed exclusively through headphones, I further accentuated vertical localization by boosting frequencies at 1 kHz and 5 kHz by 4 dB and 5 dB, respectively, to emphasize chirps and elevate the sound sources localization (Fig.4).

„Konfliktmanagement – Definition und Bedeutung von Konfliktmanagement sowie Arten von Konflikten“

Was ist Konfliktmanagement? Definition von Patryk Czechowski[1]:

Konfliktmanagement bezieht sich auf die effektive Handhabung von Konfliktsituationen zwischen zwei oder mehreren beteiligten Parteien. Diese Konflikte können aufgrund unterschiedlicher Erwartungshaltungen, individueller Persönlichkeiten, divergierender Wertvorstellungen oder sogar Stress entstehen. Wichtig ist zu betonen, dass nicht jeder Konflikt zwangsläufig eskalieren muss oder als negativ wahrgenommen werden muss. Dennoch sind Konflikte fast immer von emotionalen Komponenten begleitet, die das Potenzial für Eskalationen in sich tragen.

Im Rahmen des Konfliktmanagements werden diverse lösungsorientierte Strategien und Techniken aus den Bereichen Kommunikation, Mediation und Coaching angewandt. Diese Kenntnisse sind für jede und jeden in der Arbeitswelt von Nutzen, unabhängig von der Position, sei es eine Führungskraft oder ein Mitarbeiter:in.

Die Konfliktbewältigung beginnt häufig damit, den Konflikttyp zu identifizieren. Ein Konflikt zwischen Kollegen:innen erfordert möglicherweise andere Lösungsansätze als ein Konflikt zwischen einem Vorgesetzten und einem Mitarbeiter oder Mitarbeiterin. Die Art des Konflikts beeinflusst die Auswahl der Modelle und Methoden zur Konfliktlösung maßgeblich.

Konfliktmanagement ist die Praxis des effektiven Umgangs mit Streitigkeiten und Konflikten, die in verschiedenen Bereichen auftreten, sei es in Organisationen oder in persönlichen Beziehungen. Es umfasst eine Reihe von Strategien und Techniken, die darauf abzielen, eine Lösung zu finden und gleichzeitig nachteilige Folgen zu minimieren.

Konfliktmanagement spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Verbesserung der Kommunikation zwischen den beteiligten Parteien. Es fördert offene und transparente Dialoge, wodurch Missverständnisse beseitigt und die Zusammenarbeit insgesamt verbessert werden. Dies wiederum führt zu einem effizienteren und harmonischeren Arbeits- oder Sozialumfeld. Konfliktmanagement ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil der Konfliktlösung selbst. Durch den Einsatz geeigneter Konfliktbewältigungsstrategien können Konflikte wirksam angegangen und gelöst werden, wodurch Frieden und Gleichgewicht in den betroffenen Situationen wiederhergestellt werden. Die Fähigkeit, das Gleichgewicht wiederherzustellen, wirkt sich positiv auf die Gesamtatmosphäre aus, sei es in einer Organisation oder in persönlichen Beziehungen.

Darüber hinaus kann das Konfliktmanagement als Katalysator für Innovationen wirken, wenn es konstruktiv gehandhabt wird. Konflikte bringen oft unterschiedliche Sichtweisen und Ideen zusammen und fördern so die Kreativität und die Entwicklung neuer Lösungen. Diese Innovation kann von großem Nutzen sein und zu verbesserten Prozessen und Ergebnissen führen. Das Verständnis der verschiedenen Arten von Konflikten ist im Bereich des Konfliktmanagements von entscheidender Bedeutung.

Modell nach Friedrich Glasl

Glasl[2] ist ein österreichischer Konfliktforscher und Experte für Konfliktmanagement. Er hat verschiedene Modelle und Ansätze entwickelt, um Konflikte besser zu verstehen und konstruktiv zu bewältigen. Eines seiner bekanntesten Modelle ist das “Neun-Stufen-Modell” des Konfliktverlaufs, das er in seinem Buch “Konfliktmanagement: Ein Handbuch für Führungskräfte, Beraterinnen und Berater” veröffentlicht hat.

Ebene 1: Win-Win

Stufe 1: Anfängliche Spannungen

In dieser Phase werden erste Anzeichen von Unstimmigkeiten spürbar, bei denen verschiedene Meinungen aufeinanderprallen. Die Fronten können sich verhärten, aber die Situation ist noch relativ harmlos. Meinungsverschiedenheiten sind üblich und können durch Gespräche gelöst werden. Es gibt noch keine klaren Lagerbildung.

Stufe 2: Vertiefte Meinungsverschiedenheiten und Debatten

Die Meinungsverschiedenheiten vertiefen sich, und die Konfliktparteien versuchen, einander durch rationale Argumente zu überzeugen und unter Druck zu setzen. Jeder hält an seinem Standpunkt fest, es entsteht ein kompromissloses Schwarz-Weiß-Denken, begleitet von verbaler Aggression.

Stufe 3: Handlungen statt Worte

In dieser Phase steigt der Druck auf die Konfliktparteien. Gespräche führen nicht mehr weiter, und die Kommunikation wird frustriert und ergebnislos abgebrochen. Die Konfliktparteien ergreifen konkrete Maßnahmen und setzen den Kontrahenten vor vollendete Tatsachen. Das Verständnis füreinander weicht Misstrauen und negativen Erwartungen, was den Konflikt weiter verschärft.

Ebene 2: Lose-Win

Stufe 4: Sorge um Reputation und Koalition

In dieser Phase wird deutlich, dass es nur noch eine Gewinnerin oder Gewinner geben kann. Die Konfliktparteien suchen nach Unterstützern und Verbündeten, bilden Lager und versuchen, einander auszumanövrieren. Es beginnen Imagekampagnen und die Verbreitung negativer Gerüchte über die andere Seite. Die Konfliktparteien sind nicht mehr an Lösungen interessiert, sondern beschuldigen und attackieren sich gegenseitig. Dabei kommt es oft zu persönlichen Angriffen und Drohungen, wobei der eigentliche Konflikt in den Hintergrund tritt.

Stufe 5: Gesichtsverlust

Die gegenseitigen Angriffe werden persönlich und unmoralisch, es werden Versuche unternommen, die Gegnerin oder den Gegner bloßzustellen. Der Verlust von Moral und gegenseitigem Vertrauen geht mit einem Gesichtsverlust einher. Der Anblick des Kontrahenten löst negative Gefühle bis hin zu Ekel aus.

Stufe 6: Drohstrategien

Die Ernsthaftigkeit des Konflikts wird klar, und die Konfliktparteien erkennen, dass sie so nicht weitermachen können. Sie setzen auf Drohungen und Gegendrohungen, um die Oberhand zu gewinnen. Forderungen werden mit Bestrafungen verschärft und mit Beweisen für die Strafmöglichkeit untermauert. Je glaubwürdiger die Strafmöglichkeit, desto effektiver die Drohung, und desto eher wird der Forderung nachgegeben. Die widerlichen Drohungen auf beiden Seiten klaffen immer weiter auseinander, und der Konflikt verschärft sich weiter.

Ebene 3: Lose-Lose

Stufe 7: Begrenzte Zerstörungsabsichten

In dieser Phase nimmt jede Seite Schaden in Kauf, solange der Schaden bei der Gegnerin oder beim Gegner größer ist. Die Menschlichkeit weicht zurück, und alle erdenklichen Tricks werden eingesetzt, um dem Kontrahenten zu schaden. Die Gegnerin oder der Gegner wird nicht mehr als Mensch, sondern als emotionsloses Objekt wahrgenommen. Moralische Werte und Tugenden treten in den Hintergrund.

Stufe 8: Zersplitterung

Das Hauptziel ist der Zusammenbruch des feindlichen Systems. Die Konfliktparteien sind nicht mehr bereit, miteinander zu kommunizieren, sondern setzen auf Drohungen und Ultimaten, um Zugeständnisse zu erzwingen. Es kommt vermehrt zu Machtdemonstrationen, um die andere Seite einzuschüchtern. Die Frontkämpfer:innen werden von ihren Verbündeten und der Versorgung abgeschnitten, lebenswichtige Funktionen werden attackiert, bis zur physischen, materiellen, seelischen, sozialen oder geistigen Zerstörung.

Stufe 9: Gemeinsamer Absturz

Es gibt keinen Rückweg mehr, und es kommt zur totalen Konfrontation der beiden Parteien. Wenn die Möglichkeit besteht, die Gegnerin oder den Gegner mit in den Abgrund zu reißen, wird sie genutzt. Die Selbstzerstörung wird in Kauf genommen. Schäden an der Umgebung oder an zukünftigen Generationen halten die Kontrahenten nicht mehr von ihrer gegenseitigen Vernichtung ab.

Strategien zur Konfliktlösung:

Unter Berücksichtigung von Glasls Modell können verschiedene Strategien zur Deeskalation eingesetzt werden:

  • Stufe 1 bis 3: Moderation und Coaching
  • Stufe 3 bis 5: Externe Prozessbegleitung und Vermittlung
  • Stufe 4 bis 6: Externe sozio-therapeutische Maßnahmen
  • Stufe 5 bis 7: Professionelle Vermittlung und Mediation
  • Stufe 6 bis 8: Freiwillige/verpflichtende Schiedsverfahren oder gerichtliche Verfahren
  • Stufe 7 bis 9: Intervention von höherer Autorität

Eigene Erfahrung

In meiner beruflichen Laufbahn hatte ich eine herausfordernde Erfahrung im Bereich Konfliktmanagement, die mir nachhaltig in Erinnerung geblieben ist. Es handelte sich um einen Konflikt innerhalb unseres Projektteams, der sich im Laufe der Zeit zu einem echten Hindernis für den Projekterfolg entwickelte. Anfangs ignorierten wir die Spannungen und Meinungsverschiedenheiten, in der Hoffnung, dass sie sich von selbst auflösen würden. Doch bald wurde klar, dass dies nicht der Fall war. Die Konfliktparteien verhärteten ihre Positionen, und die Kommunikation wurde zunehmend feindselig. In dieser Situation entschloss ich mich, als Teamleiter, aktiv einzugreifen. Ich organisierte ein Treffen, bei dem alle Beteiligten Gelegenheit hatten, ihre Anliegen und Bedenken auszudrücken. Wir nutzten Moderationstechniken, um die Diskussion konstruktiv zu gestalten, und ermutigten alle, zuzuhören und Verständnis füreinander zu entwickeln. Es war keine leichte Aufgabe, da Emotionen hochkochten und einige Teilnehmer:innen widerstrebend waren. Dennoch gelang es uns nach mehreren Sitzungen, eine gemeinsame Basis zu finden und Lösungsansätze zu entwickeln. Wir setzten klare Ziele und Vereinbarungen fest, um zukünftige Konflikte zu verhindern. Am Ende führte unser Engagement für ein konstruktives Konfliktmanagement nicht nur zu einer verbesserten Teamdynamik, sondern auch zu einem erfolgreichen Projektabschluss. Diese Erfahrung hat mir verdeutlicht, wie wichtig es ist, Konflikte aktiv anzugehen und sie als Chancen zur Verbesserung und Zusammenarbeit zu nutzen.

[1] Konfliktmanagement – definition und methoden: IFM Business (no date) Konfliktmanagement – Definition und Methoden | IFM Business. Available at: (Accessed: 07 September 2023).

[2] Graßer, A. (2023) Konfliktlösung: Die 9 Eskalationsstufen nach Friedrich Glasl, HubSpot. Available at: (Accessed: 07 September 2023).

“Explore/Identity” – Concept for a Binaural Video

Sexual identity, a complex and multifaceted facet of human existence, wields a pivotal influence on an individual’s self-concept and interpersonal connections. The notion of sexual identity encompasses a spectrum of aspects including orientation, attraction, behavior, and societal roles. While the inquiry into sexual identity holds relevance across genders, the focus of this paper is on delineating and contrasting the representation of sexual identity in the context of men and women.

The fundamental premise of the project revolves around the articulation of my personal perspective on the validation and voyage of self-discovery within one’s sexuality. This video encapsulates diverse scenes where interactions occur between male and female bodies. In response, I have composed a musical composition that seeks to accentuate the varying emotional states of the performers, culminating in a profound crescendo.

The composition unfolds in five distinct phases, each corresponding to different settings or emotional currents conveyed by the actors in the video:

  1. Rotating Scene (0 – 17 seconds): Symbolizing the tumultuous external world, akin to a chaotic symphony of uninformed opinions and concealed perceptions.
  • Female Dominance (17 – 44 seconds): Portraying the transition from the external realm to the “innere” – the inner sphere. A female voice beseeches her return, a poignant plea from the external realm for her to cease her internal exploration.
  • Male Ascendancy (44 – 58 seconds): Positioned on the upper side of the screen, the male figure embodies conventional notions of power and security. However, this facade conceals an array of unanswered questions. Intrinsically woven into this segment is a contemplation on toxic masculinity, interlinked with personal introspection, and harmonizing with the overarching theme.
  • Unified Gender (58 – 1´:18 seconds): Within the same visual landscape, the rock plummets, emblematic of the merging of genders. In this context, gender distinctions blur, and the body transcends traditional categorization.
  • The Revelation (1:18 onwards): A pivotal juncture, where the woman encounters her corporeal form, laden with decisions. The external world imposes dogma anew. This climactic moment harmoniously incorporates “Ave Maria” as criticism to Catholicism and the familial credo composed solely of men and women and a female cry. At the end the hand that let her turn represents the society that let you move the way it wants.

In essence the project encapsulates a vivid exploration of sexual identity through visual and auditory mediums. It bridges diverse emotional states and perspectives, defying traditional categorizations, while contemplating the interplay between external influences and inner self-discovery. The intricate layers of this artistic endeavor echo the complexity of sexual identity, shedding light on the journey to validate, define, and celebrate one’s authentic self.

Video: Identity.mp4

Impulse: Simmetria – Live Electronic Composition

The Setup consists of:

  • a Snare;
  • two Exciters placed on the respective membranes of the Snare (Top/Bottom);
  • t.amp TA50 Amplifier
  • an electric Piezo placed on the side of the Snare;
  • a lavalier Microphone inside the Instrument;
  • Coffee Beans;
  • 4 metal Wires attached to the Screws to tune the top Membrane;
  • MIDI Controller;
  • Sound Card.

The idea of the Piece is to perform a LE through a feedback System applied to a Snare.  Since the Instrument has two Membranes, I applied two different Exciters in order to combine their timbral properties.
By using external Materials such as coffee Beans and metal Wires, I create a kind of “prepared Snare” which, thanks to the excitation of the Membrane, alters the sound output.

The Piece is mainly divided into two Sections, marked by the Performer´s introduction of the Snare´s ” Wire ” (WIRE in the score):

  • The first is of concrete nature, using the two Feedback Signals combined with the use of beans and metal wires;
  • The second, on the other hand, is purely electronic and uses two rhythmic Pulses that are reproduced by the Exciters on the two Membranes (Top/Bottom).

The Time is expressed on the Score by means of vertical red Lines that divide the piece each Minute till the end (~7´).

My sonic Idea is that of a continuous Feedback that is altered by concrete Elements that are gradually replaced by electronic ones. The result is a Drone that changes as the Amplitude changes.
Using the RMS of the input Signal of the Microphones, I try to make the array of Delays to interact, modifying the Index through the continuous variation of amplitude Peaks due to the interaction of the Performer with the System:

            delay =, 2, [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53]**1.3/1000 * rms)

For the Performance, the Performer has 6-Faders at his disposal, which interacts with the feedback System via a MIDI Controller to adjusts its Amplitude:

  1. Amp Top;
  2. Amp Bottom;
  3. Kick1 Rate;
  4. Kick1 Amp;
  5. Kick 2 Rate;
  6. Kick 2 Amp.

The whole System is based on two feedback Signals. The Exciter on the top of the Snare is combined with the lavalier Microphone inside it, while the Piezo one is connected to the Exciter on the bottom membrane:

“Mic1 on the audio Interface represents the lavalier inside the Snare, Mic2 the Piezo.

I use a Y Cable from Output 1-2 into the Amplifier where the two Exciters are connected.

(1 Top, 2 Bottom)”

The Piece is based on a reverberation model made with sixteen delay lines. Using the parameter rms I vary the index within the array, changing the sonic Result.

The patch I have created with Supercollider is divided into three synths.
The first two consist respectively of an Input ( local = + ) that goes into a DelayL, a compressor to control the Feedback and a LocalOut to trigger the recursion.
The third one is entirely dedicated to the generation of pulses by means of a SinOsc multiplied by an envelope.

How to Perform the Piece:

  • gradually increase Fader1 (amp1/Top) until feedback is triggered for ~1´;

“The sound you are looking for is a drone sound with slow but steady timbral changes”

  • from ~45´´ increase Fader2 (amp2/Bottom) until Feedback is triggered

“As with the first Fader, same dynamic characteristics but not timbre”

  • once a stable point has been found, drop the coffee beans from a height that can influence the sound result of the feedback;

      “The sound to be heard consists of a spectrally rich impulse (like a stone being thrown onto a sheet of ice)”

  • at this point begin to place the wires on the upper membrane trying to find points of vibration;

    “The aim is to obtain high-pitched resonances due to the vibration of the two objects in contact”

  • increase the Fader1 until the beans and wires vibrate;

      “Try to reach the sound of a Snare with the wire inserted, making the objects vibrate”

  • gradually attenuate the amplitude of the two exciters in a sustained FadeOut;
  • once a point of stability between the two feedbacks has been reached, firmly insert the wire and switch off the feedback, bringing the first two faders to 0;

      “Here the sonic result is an abrupt censure involving the resonance of the concrete elements and of the feedback itself”

  • from ~4´20´ start playing with the amplitude and Rate of the two respective Impulses;

      “From the silence arise these isolated impulses that timbrally are totally detached from the material previously heard”

  • slowly add Fader1 trying to make the impulses interact with the respective induced feedback;

      “The sonic result induces a sort of SideChain Effect due to the continuous Feedback that is interrupted by the impulses, changing its timbric qualities”

  •  from ~5´ insert Fader2 making further changes to the sound result;

      “Similarly as with Fader1, try to obtain the same result”

  • play until the end with the various parameters of amplitude and rate, creating a sort of counterpoint between the two membranes;

      “Create a rhythmic counterpoint, trying to get as much interaction between the feedback and the various pulses as possible”

  • FadeOut the faders till Silence is achieved.

The Score:

Impulse: Common Speach – Own Composition Analysis

During this semester I was invited to analyse one of my own composition to better understand my technical-artistic composition development during the past years of studying. That sounds like a fascinating opportunity for self-reflection and artistic growth! Analyzing your own compositions can provide valuable insights into your artistic development over time. You can examine aspects such as your use of musical techniques, harmonic choices, melodic development, structural organization, and overall expressive intent. Pay attention to how your style may have evolved, whether you’ve incorporated new ideas or techniques, and how your compositions reflect your personal artistic voice. Additionally, consider seeking feedback from peers or mentors to gain different perspectives on your work. This process can be immensely beneficial in honing your skills as a composer and deepening your understanding of your own artistic path.

Common Speach is a piece of concrete music made during my first semester at IEM. As such, it reflects the techniques and trends of the French school of Schaffer.
The material used includes the recording of various concrete sounds with which I composed the entire piece. Through the techniques of cutting, reversing and pitching I combined the different sound objects to create others, studying the interaction between the different materials and how they behaved together, such as contrasts between iron and glass or plastic and water. The piece is based on the dialogue between the various objects that intersect in a wide stereo landscape, communicating through questions and answers.

The composition is divided into three sections, which are alternated by short breaks:
– 1st: 0´ until 1´04´´;
– 2nd: 1´04´´ until 1´58´´;
– 3rd: 1´58´´ until 3´12´´.

In the first section we listen to the combination of metal, produced by the rays of a bicycle, with a bunch of keys and the glass of a glass of wine. This section is characterized by the presence of melodic elements that follow one another within the discourse, merging with rhythmic percussive gestures.
The piece begins with a gesture made up of three elements that are articulated between them:
– glass (298 Hz);
– scotch;
– keys.

At the beginning a question is asked that finds an answer to the second 8“ and that develops for 18 seconds ending with a rallentando produced by the manipulation of the sound of the chavi. In this part we can analyze the glass/metal contrast reproduced by the rallentando elements that constitute the sound object.
In fact, it is precisely the metal that conducts the dialogue, merging with the glass that continues with much more harmonious and melodic gestures, with consonant spectrum.
In the ear stands out the intervention of a gesture more harsh in the low register ( 21´´, 25´´, 28´´) that concludes the three sentences that follow one another from the second 18´´ to arrive at the rallentando(28´´) that heralds the final cadence ( 39´´), closing the first section.

In the second section the material used consists of a coin thrown in an iron bowl, a box of paper and glass. In contrast to the first section, here we have the predominance of rhythmic elements that chase each other within the stereo landscape. Always through a dialogue of question and answer, the section does not explore the timbre potential of sound objects, but is limited to the search for their interaction over time. In fact, we find the presence of discontinuous and harsh sound spectra, which, intersecting, create a sterile plot with few musical hints. The only exception is the crescendo that starts at the minute 1´25´, which camouflaged by the beats, leads the piece into a crescendo/decrescendo that concludes the section.

In the third section the material consists of a plastic glass, a glass glass, coins and spilled water.
This part is characterized by the presence of textures that accompany the composition towards its end. Rhythmic and melodic elements alternate with a less frenetic and more dilated trend. Unlike the other sections, here we find the presence of a very specific melody that starts at the minute 2´25´´ and that brings the composition to an end.

Impulse: Germán Toro-Pérez: Rulfo / voces / ecos

Born 1964 in Bogotá. First music theory studies at the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, composition studies and Master degree in arts at the University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna. Conducting courses with Karl Österreicher and Dominique Rouits. Studies on electroacoustics and computer music in Vienna and at IRCAM in Paris.

Rulfo/ecos I is part of a a cycle of 5 pieces for violin, viola, violoncello and live-electronics after the work of mexican writer Juan Rulfo (1917-1986). His work, consisting of a novel and 17 short stories, depicts rural Mexico at the time of the Mexican Revolution as a world marked by hopelessness and solitude. His poetic language, rough, unadorned and of deep musicality is language of myth, language of remembrance.

The pieces were initially intended as studies on melodic writing. In the case of Rulfo/ecos I descending sequences based on very high natural harmonics are captured and overlapped by the electronics and transformed in slowly changing harmonic fields. The movement up/down in Rulfo’s novel “Pedro Páramo”, can be seen as motivic element related to a change of state, crossing a border and approaching an endpoint. This point is in Rulfo’s fictional space always the death.

For the control of live-electronics two persons are needed: one for the mix and one for the computer. The electronics consists of four patches for the software Max/MSP and will be provided on request by the composer:

  • 4 patches on MAX/msp;
  • Computer with 8-channel sound interface and software Max/MSP;
  • Midi controller (8 fader);
  • Mixing desk: 15 in / 7 Out 7;
  • loudspeakers, 2 on the ground, 5 on stands;
  • 5 microphones on stands;
  • 3 contact microphones ;

Regarding the sound synthesis, 8 oscillators are used which, once the input of the ~fiddle cello has been analyzed, re-synthesizes it;
The sound is then used to make the spectrum denser by modifying its harmonic nature during composition. The same sound, present during the whole performance, modifies the acoustic perception through the resonances generated inside the room.

The electronic part is written/notated by means of numbers present in the score (37) which indicate technical configurations in the patch of max. The performer will press the corresponding button, activating the presets.
The sound, used from the synthesis, is recorded in the points where the triangles are present. 38 throughout the piece!

The composition is divided into 6 sections ( a – F ). At a first listening Ecos I is very regular and coherent with itself. The electronics is limited in a way to extend what is the sound dimension of the cello inside the concert hall, exploring its resonances inside the space.

With a very similar behaviour, both parts, instrumental and electronic, behave like two essential elements within the sonic enviorment, but during the performance they assume singular characters, sometimes dominating one over the other.
The charm of this composition should not be investigated from a technical point of view, but from an aesthetic/dramaturgical one. Toro-Pérez tells in music the difficulties and atrocities of a country that wants to get up again, of a country with a very long story to tell, that due to corruption and war, still does not find its identity.
Each section brings with it a different character, a different story to tell. The focus is based on the dialectic relationship between instrument/electronics, where, as in a story told, there is room for imagination and singular interpretation.

Impulse: Kappa Future Festival

On 7th and 8 th July 2023 at the Parco Dora in Tourin, The electronic music is the very protagonist. This edition of Kappa Future Festival hosted 40 artists for a total of 24 hours of music divided within two days, each starting from 12 am till midnight.        

 FutureFestival born in the 2009 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Futurism, has always hosted the most important artists of the musical world, becoming in 2015 the first format in Italy introducing the cashless technology, a new system that allows you to buy inside the festival area only by means of a prepaid card that substitutes cash.                                 Thanks to the success of the previous editions, the festival has been mentioned on the Times newspaper, as the main event of the year conquering the attendance record from abroad, hosting up to 62 different nations.                         More than 50.000 people has come from all around the world to enjoy one of a kind experience. …What can you breathe inside the Parco Dora? The feeling of being part of something huge.

This was the alien Line Up:

Day 1 – Saturday 7 Luglio


BURN STAGE: ANDREA OLIVA, DJ TENNIS, EATS EVERYTHING, GIORGIA ANGIULI Live, PATRICK TOPPING, RICHY AHMED                                                                                            



Day 2 – Sunday 8 Luglio

JAGER STAGE: FATBOY SLIM, JAMIE JONES, KiNK Live, LUCIANO, MARCO CAROLA, SETH TROXLER, STACEY PULLEN                                                                                            




It mustn’t be that easy to figure out how to organize a timetable able to valorize both the stages and the artists, but FutureFestival did it. Instead of focusing all the “bigs” at the end of each slot, they achieved a heterogeneous distribution among the entire day. Given the high number of Dj’s, in this edition has been set up another stage: Jäger (its name already suggests what kind of music this area reserved…).

Within 12 hours of music is quite difficult to find lazy spots, if a stage presents someone that we for example don’t like, we have other three possibilities to find someone else that makes us fell half that good. There is no discrimination, some headliner are playing at 15 on the Main Stage while others at 22.                                                                                                  This strategy provides entry from the very beginning of the festival, collecting the most fancy and variegated audience in all groups of ages , from 18 up to 50 years old.

Due to the huge turnout of this edition, the entrance has been divided into gate A and B, two endless walkways equipped with turnstiles and security, each of 20 meters. The inspection made by the police was maniacal, besides the search and the metal detectors, each person had to be checked by the search dogs that where looking for drugs and explosives. I red on the newspaper that only during the first day, more than one kilos Hashish and 500 pills where seized.                              After more or less one hour waiting in line, you could finally access into the festival’s area.    

The location plays an important role inside this adventure. Parco Dora offers 450.000 square meters of space, with a river that in the past was not accessible due the factories. Nevertheless the decontamination, this park reminds the industrial life typical of that part of the city, by keeping most of the pre-existing building, like steel hangars and chimneys. Stationed between grass and iron, the stages where build all around the area. The main one (Jäger) was characterized by this huge open-air rectangular hall, with an iron roof on a cement floor, a minimal structure decorated only by means of speakers all around the ring.                                                                                                                                  The other stages where looming on grass and mulch, giving the possibility to chilling in the sun, listening to a “softer” sound, drinking a cocktail or a beer sold by the several stands spread all around the area.                                                        Peculiarity of this allocation where the ways used to link the different location.                                                                            The organization created a sort of path through the ruins and the rubbles, reviving what might have been the industrial life at that time.

Despite the massive success and the maniacal organization, I think that the “Sound” factor was a bit overlooked. Due to the different normative about the breaches of the peace, FutureFestival, different from the others editions, adopted a peaceful political by reducing drastically the volume. It’s incredibly frustrating to see 20 meters line array towers and 70 subwoofer playing as an open-air theater. Ignoring the sound feedback between the stages, perhaps because was required a better and more precise acoustic intervention for that situation, it was unavoidable to listen to the surrounding area instead of the music.

Techno music is a very standard and metric genre, the entire construction is based on the subdivision of the piece into: Intro, Breakdown and Drop, the “pumping” part. Elements to appreciate this music are the volume and the pressure that, together, play an important role on the perception… even a cheesy composition can sounds amazing with the correct amplification. From this point of view the Kappa FutureFestival was a flop, the only solution, to get the sound from one source, was to get closer to the stage, among the most fiercest ravers, surviving the bumps and the jabs. Really to appreciate have been the visuals, that through projections and screens have colored this unique adventure.

Kappa FutureFestival remains, without a doubt, a great experience to meet fantastic people and to have an electronic contact with the world. Waiting for the next appointment…

“One Wire Hackbrett”- Inspirations

As a reference for this project, I present two different examples that I researched for the realization of the “One Wire Hackbrett”. Approaching these projects, I got an idea of how to realize the instrument and the different ways of playing it. Even though both examples could result similarly from the technical point of view, each of them presents innovative aspects that I can implement into my project:

  • “Autoklavierspieler”: realized by Winfried Ritsch, is a robot piano player, also called “Vorsetzer”, designed to play every common (grand) piano with individual dynamics for each key as fast as possible. A massive frame with 88 electromechanical fingers, which are moved by solenoids, is mounted on a keyboard. Controlled by microcontrollers, which are driven over a dedicated computer, the “Autoklavierspieler” can be controlled over Network, MIDI files and real-time generated algorithmic music.[1]

An example of its application can be seen at the following link:

  • “ballet mécanique”: is the most famous composition of the American composer George Antheil. Originally composed to be a soundtrack of a film, the composition is composed for 16-player pianos, four kick drums, three xylophones, a tam-tam, seven electric bells, a siren, and three propellors. [2] Since the technological possibilities of the time did not allow for the creation of a machine capable of playing and synchronizing instruments with each other, this performance became a challenge for several contemporary performers. I had the pleasure and opportunity to work with Professor Ritsch during the preparation of his version of the piece.

[1] Autoklavierspieler Overview (2022) Atelier Algorythmics. Available at: (Accessed: January 23, 2023).


“One Wire Hackbrett” – 1st Semester Timetable

Since I have already assembled the electrical parts necessary to be able to play the instrument, next semester will focus mainly on the realization of the physical prototype through the following steps:

  1. Implement PlatformIO[1] to connect the Arduino´s codes together and have a better and more fluent programming environment;
  • create a GUI that communicates with the instrument via Wi-Fi. Through OSC messages, I will map the following parameters:
    • the time interval between the beats of the solenoid;
    • velocity;
    • the degrees of rotation of the lever to vary the pitch;
    • the degrees of rotation of the tuning screws;
  • build two wooden sticks to support two hammers for each string. At this point would be interesting to implement additional DC motors, like for a 3D printer, to control the movement of the sticks along the strings to get timbral variations;
  • change the tuning system of the “Hackbrett”, similar to a guitar´s one, to decrease the required torsion force for the DC motor to rotate them;
  • create different supports that fits the servos in order to change the tuning of the strings;
  • regarding the performative aspect of this instrument, I will implement one IR sensor to control the lever. I will map the movement of the hand to the steps of the motor to change the pitch through movement,
  • implement a small DC motor to control a sort of mute rail of the piano, damping the strings.

[1] PlatformIO (no date) Platformio is a professional collaborative platform for embedded development, PlatformIO. Available at: (Accessed: January 26, 2023).